Developing Counseling Skill Using the Landro Play Analyzer (LPA): A Grounded Theory

Erin E. Binkley, Brandon J. Wilde, Shawn P. Parmanand, Ann M. McCaughan, David M. Kleist


This qualitative study investigated personal accounts of autonomy and reliance of 5 counselors-in-training who used the Landro Play Analyzer during supervision of counseling skills. In-depth interviews, researcher memos, participant follow-up, and collaborative data analysis were used.  A theoretical model was developed describing (a) causal conditions that underlie factors that facilitate or inhibit strategies for autonomy or dependence, (b) phenomena that emerged from those conditions, (c) the context influencing strategy development, (d) intervening conditions influencing strategy development, (e) actual strategies influencing interaction with self and supervision, and (f) consequences of those strategies. Implications for counselors and counselor educators are addressed.


counseling; technology; skill-development; pre-practicum; supervision

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