Love-Seeking or Attachment Disorder? A Holistic Review on Indiscriminate Friendliness in Adopted or Maltreated Children

Yanhong Liu, Laura Jane Fullenkamp, Diane Marie Zimmer


This conceptual article provides a holistic review of literature on children’s indiscriminate friendliness (IF), defined as excessively friendly behavior to strangers without age-appropriate screening or hesitance (Tizard, 1977), in relation to counseling. It discusses the complexity of IF, its relationship with attachment, and individually and culturally associative factors. It also broaches the pathological view on IF reflected in clinical diagnoses through various versions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It highlights the need for a well-established measure for IF and offers practical implications for counseling children with IF.


indiscriminate friendliness, attachment, culture, children, DSM

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