The Language of Time: Exploring Stress, Hope, and Well-Being Outcomes

Elizabeth A. Keller-Dupree, Michelle Kelley Shuler, Jasmine Rowe, Christopher C. O'Lansen, Shannon Kline, LaQueta Hill, Amy Luznicky


The current study sought to explore how language use pertaining to time and well-being practices could be an indicator of perceptions of stress, hope, and well-being outcomes. Using social media as a sampling platform, this mixed-method study involved 323 participants in the general population answering a time-orientation prompt concerning wellness and well-being practices. Participants were categorized into Finders, Makers, and Takers based on self-selected language use, and a qualitative content analysis of findings was conducted. Quantitatively, Finders reported higher perceptions of stress, lower levels of hope (pathway thinking), and all groups scored similarly on well-being outcomes. Results support that self-selected language use for time conveys different outcomes for participants, including perception of stress and hope levels. Implications involve exploration of language use for well-being outcomes in both clinical and general populations.


self-talk, language, well-being, perception of stress, hope

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