The Language of Time: Exploring Stress, Hope, and Well-Being Outcomes

  • Elizabeth A. Keller-Dupree Northeastern State University
  • Michelle Kelley Shuler Texas A&M University - Central Texas
  • Jasmine Rowe Northeastern State University
  • Christopher C. O'Lansen
  • Shannon Kline
  • LaQueta Hill
  • Amy Luznicky
Keywords: self-talk, language, well-being, perception of stress, hope


The current study sought to explore how language use pertaining to time and well-being practices could be an indicator of perceptions of stress, hope, and well-being outcomes. Using social media as a sampling platform, this mixed-method study involved 323 participants in the general population answering a time-orientation prompt concerning wellness and well-being practices. Participants were categorized into Finders, Makers, and Takers based on self-selected language use, and a qualitative content analysis of findings was conducted. Quantitatively, Finders reported higher perceptions of stress, lower levels of hope (pathway thinking), and all groups scored similarly on well-being outcomes. Results support that self-selected language use for time conveys different outcomes for participants, including perception of stress and hope levels. Implications involve exploration of language use for well-being outcomes in both clinical and general populations.

Author Biography

Elizabeth A. Keller-Dupree, Northeastern State University

Associate Professor of Psychology and Counseling,

Northeastern State University